Sunday, November 29, 2015

Lost and Found: McCarthy and His Enemies - Part I, Chapter 3, The State Department, 1945 - 1947: An Earnest Effort

Consistency never has been a mark of stupidity. If the diplomats who have mishandled our relations with Russia were merely stupid, they would occasionally make a mistake in our favor.  -- James Forrestal to Joseph McCarthy, December 1946

Lost and Found: L&F is a series devoted to old books which veer from our modern interpretation of historical events. The series devotes itself to seeking out truth which often lies somewhere twixt the gap between understandings.

The second of this series is devoted to McCarthy and His Enemies by William Buckley and L. Brent Bozell, published by the Henry Regnery Company in 1954. The hearings McCarthy held remain one of the most fascinating dramas of the last century.  Other chapters on this work include:

Lost and Found: McCarthy and His Enemies - Prologue
Lost and Found: McCarthy and His Enemies - Part I, Chapter 1, The Problem
Lost and Found: McCarthy and His Enemies - Part I, Chapter 2, The Background

Part I, Chapter 3, 
The State Department, 1945 - 1947: 
An Earnest Effort

The Purge

Almost immediately post WWII, the Adolph Berle and John Grew who favored directly confronting Soviet expansionism were replaced by Dean Acheson with Alger Hiss as his principal assistant:

Adolf Berle

Joseph Grew

When Chiang Kai-shek was fighting our war, the State Department had in China a young man named John S. Service. His task, obviously, was not to work for the communization of China. Strangely, however, he sent official reports back to the State Department urging that we torpedo our ally Chiang Kai-shek and stating, in effect, that communism was the best hope of China.
Later, this man -- John Service -- was picked up by the Federal Bureau of Investigation for turning over to the communists secret State Department information. Strangely, however, he was never prosecuted. However, Joseph Grew, the undersecretary of state, who insisted on his prosecution, was forced to resign. Two days after, Grew's successor, Dean Acheson, took over as undersecretary of state, this man -- John Service -- who had been picked up by the FBI and who had previously urged that communism was the best hope of China, was not only reinstated in the State Department but promoted; and finally, under Acheson, placed in charge of all placements and promotions. Today, ladies and gentlemen, this man Service is on his way to represent the State Department and Acheson in Calcutta -- by far and away the most important listening post in the Far East.

Leftward Administrative Tilt

This leftward tilt of the State Department was further accelerated by a series of changes:

#1 Policy making was transferred from career Foreign Service officials to the State Department.
#2 Foreign intelligence was centralized.
#3 Shift from a nationalistic to a global, United Nations, centered approach to policy. - Foreign Service, Civil Service: How We Got to Where We Are

Red Coup Averted

During this period, Alger his was scheming to implement even more ambitious plans to consolidated power at the State Department under himself.

Here is what Anthony Panuch who supervised State Department security thought these plans, plans later scuttled by Secretary Byrnes:

In The Presence of Our Enemies: A History of The Malignant Effects of UNESCO in US Schools By Ellen McClay

Securing State

In the immediate post WWII years, Secretary Byrnes tightened security at the State Department. Key to this was the security staff:
  • Donald Russell, Assistant Secretary
  • J. Anthony Panuch, Security Coordinator
  • Tom Fitch, FBI Head
  • Fred Lyon, Chief of Counter Intelligence

OSS/State Merger

One of the biggest challenges facing the State Department during this period was the merger of OSS functions into the State Department: - Office_of_Strategic_Services

A month later, on September 20, 1945, President Truman signed Executive Order 9621, terminating the OSS. His Order became effective October 1, 1945. In the days following, the functions of the OSS were split between the Department of State and the Department of War. The State Department received the Research and Analysis Branch of OSS which was renamed the Interim Research and Intelligence Service or IRIS,[27] headed by U.S. Army Colonel Alfred McCormack. Later it was renamed the Bureau of Intelligence and Research by the State Department.

This was an issue as the OSS was riddled with Soviet Agents: - Yes, OSS Was Riddled With Communists
The Complete Idiot's Guide to the U.S. Special Ops Forces By Marc Cerasini - OSS Traitors and Double Agents

McCrarran Rider

Nightmare in Red : The McCarthy Era in Perspective: The McCarthy Era in ... By Richard M. Fried Associate Professor of History University of Illinois at Chicago - McCarran_Internal_Security_Act
Blacklisted by History: The Untold Story of Senator Joe McCarthy and His ... By M. Stanton Evans

No comments: